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Turbine induced flow Wing-Tip Vortices vortex ring state

induced flow

The following animation depicts the column of air that occurs when a helicopter maintains flight in a hover.


Ambient air is gathered from directly above & brought down through the disc to provide sufficient lift to sustain flight.


As the air from above is already moving down to replace the air below it, that has already moved down through the disc, this motion (velocity) is called induced flow and it detracts from the amount of effective lift provided.