TASK 2095

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TASK 2095

Note: Tasks 2090, 2093, and 2095 are power management tasks. While listed individually in
this aircrew training manual (ATM), performance of these tasks is interrelated and should be
taught and trained as such. Refer to appendix B of this ATM for more detailed information.

CONDITIONS: In a UH-1 helicopter with the hover power and before-takeoff checks completed.

STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus these additions/modifications:
1. Correctly select the type of takeoff requiring the minimum amount of power to safely
complete the maneuver.

2. Accurately predict the torque/power required for the maneuver.

3. The pilot on the controls (P*) will determine the point where the aircraft will enter effective
translational lift (ETL) for the type of takeoff being performed.

4. Establish abort point and reconfirm escape plan determined in the reconnaissance.

5. Use the minimum power necessary for the takeoff being performed.

6. Conduct post-task analysis (PTA) after takeoff.

1. Crew actions.

 a. After reassessing the landing zone (LZ) surface, winds, and obstacles, the P* will select
 the type of takeoff: level acceleration (best angle of climb or best rate of climb), constant
 angle, or vertical. The P* will then determine the ETL point for the takeoff, reaffirm the
 predicted torque for the takeoff, and announce the abort plan.
 b. The pilot not on the controls (P)/nonrated crewmember (NCM) will announce when
 ready for takeoff and will focus their attention primarily outside the aircraft to assist in
 clearing obstacles. The P will cross-monitor torque and note the amount of power used
 (expended torque) as well as when it was used. The crew will select reference points to assist
 in maintaining ground track.
 c. Upon completion of the maneuver the P* will conduct post-task analysis of the takeoff.
 Causes of any differences in the actual ETL point and the prediction of that point will be
 determined. Discrepancies between predicted torque and expended torque will be analyzed
 for cause and the maneuver will be repeated as necessary to validate assumptions.

Note: In having to correctly determine the ETL point, the P* is forced to accurately consider
the effects of his control inputs, wind conditions, and surface considerations. Any under- or
over-estimation of the point must be explained in the PTA following the takeoff maneuver.

Note: The predicted torque determined for the maneuver would also be the hypothetical limit
for establishing the takeoff escape plan. If it becomes apparent that the power selected for the
maneuver is insufficient for obstacle clearance, the abort will be executed or additional power
will be applied beyond predicted torque and noted by the P. In considering a nap of the earth
(NOE) deceleration as part of the abort plan, the P* must consider the amount of power for
the abort and the amount of airspeed at the time of the abort.

2. Procedures.
 a. Level acceleration: This is a simulated maximum power situation where the power
 determined to be required (predicted torque) is the power required to hover in the LZ at a
 given altitude. The first objective is to achieve ETL without allowing the aircraft to settle to
 the surface. If it becomes apparent that the aircraft will contact the surface, apply sufficient
 aft cyclic to prevent contact or abort the maneuver and analyze for cause. As the transverse
 flow shudder develops, increase left and then forward cyclic. When the aircraft enters ETL,
 apply additional forward cyclic to prevent blowback. Maintain altitude and allow the aircraft
 to accelerate until the appropriate climb airspeed is attained. Best angle airspeed is
 approximately 30 to 35 knots indicated airspeed (KIAS). As the airspeed indicator will not be
 reliable, one bar width above the horizon on the vertical speed indicator (VSI) is used to
 approximate the speed. This attitude will provide the best angle of climb for the power
 applied. Best rate of climb is attempted when the predetermined best rate of climb airspeed is
 achieved on the indicator. When the desired speed is achieved, begin a cyclic climb until the
 obstacles are cleared and then adjust controls for a normal climb.
 b. Constant angle: In this maneuver, the angle may range from near vertical to flat. In this
 type of takeoff, more power than hover power is required. The angle is initiated from the
 point of hover or ground to a point in space. The goal is for the P* to accurately predict the
 power required for the angle selected as well as the ETL point on the angle, and the
 maintenance of the angle as precisely as possible. The P* initiates the takeoff by coordinating
 all the controls as necessary to begin a constant angle over a predetermined path. Expended
 torque is noted by the P as well as when it was used.
 c. Vertical: Vertical takeoffs can be classified as constant angles but are treated separately
 to emphasize two critical issues. First, when compared to lesser angles, vertical departures
 can often be executed with less power when wind is present. Power should be monitored
 during the climb to note the effects of the wind. Second, better escape options are available
 when the principle hazards to takeoff are related to high gross weight situations. In vertical
 departures, the entire LZ is available for recovery in the event of an aborted takeoff. The P*
 predicts the power and ETL entry point as in the other departures.

Note: To maximize training value, all three types of takeoffs should be executed and
compared for ETL entry points, power required, control input coordination, and timing as
well as abort/escape options.

1. If sufficient illumination exists to view obstacles, accomplish the takeoff in the same way as a
visual meteorological conditions (VMC) takeoff during the day. Visual obstacles, such as
shadows, should be treated the same as physical obstacles.

2. If sufficient illumination or depth perception does not exist to adequately judge hover height
or view obstacles, additional altitude should be used for level acceleration departures.

3. When conducting operations during unaided night flight, ensure that the searchlight or
landing light (white light) is in the desired position. Use of the white light will impair night vision
several minutes. Therefore, exercise added caution if resuming flight before reaching full dark

1. Training will be conducted in the aircraft.
2. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.

Note: The standards for this maneuver have no ± figures assigned. The reason for this is to
enhance power management skills and flying techniques. When evaluating this maneuver the
SP/IP will determine, after the PTA is conducted, whether or not to perform additional

REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.
            TC 1-211, appendix B