Exract: TC 1-211 AIRCREW TRAINING MANUAL UTILITY HELICOPTER, UH-1H/V SERIES TASK 2067 SELECT LANDING ZONE /PICKUP ZONE AND HOLDING AREA RECONNAISSANCE WARNING Not all hazards will be depicted on a map. When using a map reconnaissance to determine suitability, the added risk of unknown hazards must be addressed during the mission risk assessment process. CONDITIONS: In a UH-1 helicopter given a map or photo data. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus these additions/modifications: 1. Perform map, photo, or visual reconnaissance. 2. Determine that the landing zone (LZ) is suitable for operations and provide accurate and detailed information to supported unit if applicable. 3. Confirm suitability on initial approach. DESCRIPTION: 1. Crew actions. The crew will confirm location of plotted hazards and call out location of unplotted hazards. a. The pilot in command (PC) will confirm suitability of the area for the planned mission. b. The pilot on the controls (P*) will remain focused primarily outside the aircraft throughout the maneuver for aircraft control and obstacle avoidance. The P* will announce any intent to deviate from the maneuver. c. The pilot not on the controls (P) and nonrated crewmember (NCM) will assist in reconnaissance of the LZ, clearing the aircraft, and will provide adequate warning of obstacles. They will acknowledge the P*’s intent to deviate from the maneuver. 2. Procedures. 3. Gather map or photo data on potential LZ(s) or conduct an in-flight suitability check if map or photo data is unreliable. Determine the suitability by evaluating size, long axis, barriers, surface conditions, tactical situation, and effects of the wind. Select a flight path, altitude, and airspeed that afford the best observation of the landing area, as required. Determine an approach, desired touchdown point, and departure path. The tactical, technical, and meteorological elements must be considered in determining suitability. Note: If wind conditions will be a factor, a wind evaluation should be performed. Techniques for evaluating wind conditions are found in FM 1-202. Note: Depending on the mission, an in-flight suitability check may not be feasible. Suitability may be determined by a map reconnaissance. Make a final determination of suitability upon arrival to the LZ/pickup zone (PZ). (1) Tactical. (a) Mission. Determine if the mission can be accomplished from the selected LZ. Consider flight time, fuel, number of sorties, and access route. (b) Location. To reduce troop fatigue, consider distance of PZ or LZ from supported unit or objective, and supported unit’s mission, equipment, and method of travel to/from PZ/LZ. (c) Security. Consider size and proximity of threat elements versus availability of security forces. The supported unit normally provides security. Consider cover and concealment, key terrain, and avenues of approach and departure. The area should be large enough to provide dispersion. (2) Technical. (a) Number and type of aircraft. Determine if the size of the LZ can support all the aircraft at once, or if they must rotate into LZ for in-flight link-up. (b) Landing formation. Plan landing formation for the shape and size of the LZ. (c) Sling loads. For missions requiring sling loads at or near maximum gross weight (GWT) of the helicopter, select larger LZs where barriers have minimum vertical development. (d) Surface conditions. Consider slopes, blowing sand, snow, or dust. Be aware that vegetation may conceal surface hazards (for example, large rocks, ruts, or stumps). Areas selected should also be free of sources of rotor wash signature. (e) Obstacles. Hazards within the LZ that cannot be eliminated must be plotted. Plan the approach and departure routes over the lowest obstacles. (3) Meteorological. (a) Ceiling and visibility. Ceiling and visibility are critical when operating near threat elements. Inadvertent instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) recovery can expose the aircraft and crew to radar-guided and heat-seeking weapons, with few options for detection and avoidance. If one aircrew of a multiship operation must respond to inadvertent IMC the element of surprise will be lost, the assets on board will not be available for the mission, and the entire mission may be at risk. (b) Winds. Determine approach and departure paths. (c) Pressure altitude (PA). High PA may limit loads and therefore require more sorties. Note: Avoid planning approach or departure routes into a rising or setting sun or moon. NIGHT OR NIGHT VISION GOGGLE CONSIDERATIONS: 1. Unimproved and unlit areas are more difficult to evaluate at night because of low contrast. Knowledge of the various methods for determining the height of obstacles is critical to successfully completing this task. Visual obstacles such as shadows should be treated the same as physical obstacles. 2. When performing operations during unaided night flight, ensure that the searchlight or landing light (white light) is in the desired position. Use of the white light will impair night vision for several minutes. Therefore, exercise added caution if resuming flight before reaching full dark adaptation. CONFINED AREA CONSIDERATIONS: Determine a suitable axis and path for a go-around. For multi-aircraft operations, determine the number of aircraft that the area can safely accommodate. SNOW/SAND/DUST CONSIDERATIONS: Evaluate surface conditions for the likelihood of encountering a whiteout/brownout. Determine a suitable axis and path for a go-around. MOUNTAIN/PINNACLE/RIDGELINE CONSIDERATIONS: When practical, position the aircraft on the windward side of the area. Evaluate suitability, paying particular attention to pressure altitude and winds. Determine a suitable axis and escape route for a go-around. Operations at high altitudes are more likely to expose the crews to visual detection, radar, or heat-seeking weapons. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS: 1. Training will be conducted in the aircraft. 2. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.