BW Aircraft Start
Basic Wings requirement: TASK 1024 - PERFORM BEFORE STARTING ENGINE THROUGH BEFORE LEAVING HELICOPTER CHECKS
- 1 2. Basic Wings – Aircraft Start
- 1.1 2.1. Objective: Perform an engine start and ready the aircraft for operational flight as per 1024 UH-1h ATM 2007 & 229th SOP.
- 1.1.1 812. BEFORE EXTERIOR CHECKS
- 1.1.2 8-21. BEFORE STARTING ENGINE
- 1.1.3 8-22. STARTING ENGINE
- 1.1.4 8-23. ENGINE RUNUP.
- 1.1.5 8-28. HOVER/TAXI CHECK
- 1.1.6 8-30. BEFORE TAKEOFF
- 1.1.7 8-31. TAKE OFF
- 1.1.8 8-33. MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE TAKEOFF
- 1.1.9 8-34. SLINGLOAD
- 1.1.10 8-35. CLIMB
- 1.1.11 8-36. CRUISE
- 1.1.12 8-37. DESCENT
- 1.1.13 8-38. BEFORE LANDING
- 1.1.14 8-39. LANDING
- 1.1.15 8-40. ENGINE SHUTDOWN
- 1.1.16 8-41. BEFORE LEAVING THE HELICOPTER
- 1.1 2.1. Objective: Perform an engine start and ready the aircraft for operational flight as per 1024 UH-1h ATM 2007 & 229th SOP.
2. Basic Wings – Aircraft Start
2.1. Objective: Perform an engine start and ready the aircraft for operational flight as per 1024 UH-1h ATM 2007 & 229th SOP.
NOTE TO USER: The essential steps for expedient practical in-game application of the following Tasks will be Block Highlighted like this message.
812. BEFORE EXTERIOR CHECKS
- Covers, locking devices, tie downs, and cables removed, except aft main rotor tie down.
- Publications - Check in accordance with DA PAM 738-751 and locally required forms and publications.
- AC circuit breakers - In.
- Cargo hook Check
BATTERY switch => On: Check voltage. A minimum of 24 volts should be indicated on the DC voltmeter for a battery start. LIGHTS => On: Check landing, search, anticollision, position, interior lights and NVG lighting.
FUEL => Check quantity.
BATTERY switch => Off. Flight Controls - Check freedom of movement of cyclic and collective; center cyclic, collective down.
8-21. BEFORE STARTING ENGINE
- Smoke generator operating switch - Check: Refer to Chapter 4, MISSION EQUIPMENT, for systems check.
DC circuit breakers => in, except for ARMAMENT and SPECIAL EQUIP.
- DOME LT switch – As required.
- PITOT HTR switch – OFF.
ANTI COLL switch => ON.
- POSITION lights switches – As required:
- CARGO REL switch – OFF.
- WIPERS switch – OFF.
- CABIN HEATING switches – OFF.
- INST LTG switches – As required.
PHASE switch => AC.
INVTR switch => OFF.
MAIN GEN switch => ON and cover down.
VM selector => ESS BUS.
- NON-ESS BUS switch – As required.
STARTER GEN switch => START.
BAT switch => ON.
LOW RPM ALARM => Off
GROUND POWER => On
- Smoke Gauge–Check.
FIRE warning indicator light => Test.
- Systems instruments – Check engine and transmission systems for static indications, slippage marks, and ranges.
- Center pedestal switches – Set as follows:
- Avionics equipment — Off; set as desired.
- External stores jettison handle – Check Safe.
ARM/STBY/SAFE switch => Safe
JETTISON switch => down and covered.
GOV switch => Auto.
DE-ICE switch => OFF.
MAIN FUEL switch => ON.
CAUTION panel lights => TEST and RESET.
HYD CONT switch => ON.
FORCE TRIM switch => ON.
CHIP DET switch => BOTH.
- Flight controls–Check freedom of movement
- Collective Pitch full down.
- Barometric Altimeters – Set to field elevation.
- QNH: "Altitude" (ASL)
- QFE: "HGT" (AGL)
- QNE: "29.92" (PA)
8-22. STARTING ENGINE
- Rotor blades–Check clear and untied.
THROTTLE => Set for start.
- Position the throttle as near as possible (on decrease side) to the engine idle stop.
- Engine–Start as follows:
START switch => Press and hold
- Note Start time & DC voltmeter indication. Battery starts can be made when voltages less than 24 volts are indicated, provided the voltage remains >14 volts when cranking through 10% N1 speed. If not, Abort start.
- Main rotor–Check that the main rotor is turning as N1 reaches 15 percent. If the rotor is not turning, Abort start.
START switch => Release at 40 percent N1 or after 40 seconds, whichever occurs first.
THROTTLE => Slowly advance past the engine idle stop to the engine idle position.
- Manually check the engine idle stop by attempting to close the throttle and hold a very slight pressure against the engine idle stop.
- A slight rise in N1 may be anticipated after releasing pressure on throttle.
- Ground Idle: N1 68 to 72 percent.
- The Copilot Attitude Indicator should be caged and held momentarily as Inverter power is applied.
INVERTER switch => MAIN ON.
- Engine and transmission oil pressures - Check.
GROUND POWER => Off.
8-23. ENGINE RUNUP.
- Avionics - On.
STARTER GEN switch - STBY GEN.
- Systems - Check as follows:
- Fuel: fuel pressure >5psi
- Engine: EOP >25psi; EOT> should be increasing
- Transmission: XMSN OP > 30 psi; XMSN OT > should be increasing
- 112 to 118 volts.
- 27 volts at 26°C and above.
- 28 volts from 0°C to 26°C.
- 28.5 volts below 0°C.
THROTTLE Increase full Left
- The low rpm audio and warning light should be off at 6100 to 6300 rpm.
- Flight Idle NR 320, N2 6600
- Avionics and flight instruments Check and set as required.
RADAR ALTIMETER On
- Health Indicator Test (HIT) Check Perform as required.
8-28. HOVER/TAXI CHECK
- Perform the following checks at a hover:
- Engine and transmission instruments - Check.
- Flight Instruments - Check as required.
- VSI and Altimeter Check for indication of climb and descent.
- Slip Indicator Check ball free in race.
- Turn needle heading indicator and magnetic compass. Check for turn indication left and right.
- Attitude Indicator Check for indication of nose high and low and banks left and right.
- Airspeed Indicator Check airspeed.
- Power Check as required. The power check is performed by comparing the indicated torque required to hover with the predicted values from performance charts.
8-30. BEFORE TAKEOFF
- Immediately prior to takeoff the following checks shall be accomplished.
- 1. RPM - 6600
- 2. Systems - Check engine, transmission, electrical and fuel systems indications.
- 3. Avionics - As required.
- 4. Crew passengers and mission equipment -- Check
8-31. TAKE OFF
- During take-off and at any time the helicopter skids are close to the ground, negative pitch attitudes (nose low) of 10’or more can result in ground contact of the WSPS lower cutter.
- Forward cog, high gross weight, high density altitude, transitional lift setting, and a tail wind increases the probability of ground contact.
8-33. MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE TAKEOFF
- A take-off that demands maximum performance from the helicopter may be necessary because of various combinations of heavy helicopter loads,
- limited power, and restricted performance due to high density altitudes, barriers and other terrain features that must be cleared .
- The decision to use either of the following take-off techniques must be based on evaluation of the conditions and helicopter performance.
- The Max Performance Take-off technique to be used is based on evaluation of the environmental conditions and helicopter performance.
- Align the helicopter with the desired take-off course at a stabilized hover approximately three feet (skid height)
- Apply forward cyclic pressure smoothly and gradually while simultaneously increasing collective pitch to begin coordinated acceleration and climb.
- Maximum torque available should be applied to achieve an airframe attitude that will permit safe obstacle clearance.
- The climb out is continued at that attitude and power setting until the obstacle is cleared.
- This technique is desirable when OGE hover capability exists.
- From a stabilized hover of approximately three feet (skid height), apply forward cyclic pressure smoothly and gradually while simultaneously increasing collective pitch to begin an acceleration while maintaining 3 to 5 feet skid height.
- Maximum torque available should be applied prior to accelerating through effective transitional lift.
- Additional forward cyclic pressure will be necessary to allow for level acceleration to the desired climb airspeed.
- Approximately five knots prior to reaching the desired climb airspeed gradually release forward cyclic pressure and allow the helicopter to begin a constant climb to clear the obstacle.
- Do not to decrease airspeed during the climb.
Comparison of Techniques.
- Refer to Chapter 7, Performance Data for a comparison of takeoff distances.
- Where the two techniques yield the same distance over a fifty-foot obstacle the coordinated climb technique will give a shorter distance over lower obstacles, and the level acceleration technique will give a shorter distance over obstacles higher than fifty feet.
- The two techniques give approximately the same distance over a fifty-foot obstacle when the helicopter can barely hover OGE.
- As hover capability is decreased, the level acceleration technique gives increasingly shorter distances than the coordinated climb technique.
- In addition to the distance comparison the main advantages of the level acceleration technique are:
- (1) It requires less or no time in the avoid area of the height velocity diagram
- (2) performance is more repeatable since reference to attitude which changes with loading and airspeed is not required;
- (3) at the higher climb out airspeeds (30 knots or greater) reliable indicated airspeeds are available for accurate airspeed reference from the beginning of the climb out therefore minimizing the possibility of descent.
- The main advantage of the coordinated climb technique is that the climb angle is established early in the take-off and more distance and time are available to abort the take-off if the obstacle cannot be cleared.
- Additionally large attitude changes are not required to establish climb airspeed.
The slingload take-off requiring the maximum performance (when OGB hover is not possible) is similar to the level acceleration technique except the take-off is begun and the acceleration made above 15 feet. Obstacle heights include the additional height necessary for a 15-foot sling load.
After take-off select the speed necessary to clear obstacles. When obstacles are cleared adjust the airspeed as desired at or above the maximum rate of climb airspeed. Refer to Chapter 7 for recommended airspeeds.
When the desired cruise altitude is reached adjust power as necessary to maintain the required airspeed. Refer to Chapter 7 for recommended airspeeds power settings and fuel flow.
Adjust power and attitude as necessary to attain and maintain the desired speed and rate during descent. Refer to Chapter 7 for power requirements at selected airspeeds and rates of descent All checks of mission equipment that must be made in preparation for landing should be accomplished during descent.
8-38. BEFORE LANDING
Prior to landing the following checks shall be accomplished:
1. RPM 6600.
2. Crew passengers and mission equipment--Check.
- Run-on Landing.
- A run-on landing may be used during emergency conditions of hydraulic power failure, flight control malfunctions, and adverse environmental conditions.
- The approach is shallow and airspeed is maintained as for normal approach except that touchdown is made at an airspeed above ETL.
- After ground contact is made, slowly decrease collective pitch to minimize forward speed.
- Landing from a Hover.
- To initiate a landing from a hover, slowly reduce collective while simultaneously compensating for a left yaw tendency with input of the right pedal.
- Typically the left skid will make ground contact first, followed by the right skid, and then the skid toes.
- The pilot needs to be prepared to perform the following control inputs to compensate for control instability when lowering the collective and when contacting the ground:
- The helicopter will have a tendency to yaw left due to decreased thrust of the main rotor, requiring a measured input of the RIGHT pedal.
- The resulting decreased thrust of the tail rotor will produce a tendency for the helicopter to slide left, requiring measured input of the cyclic to the RIGHT.
- As the helicopter nears the ground, ground effect will result in a reduced sink rate or a stabilized altitude, requiring an additional slight reduction of the collective controlto "push through" the ground effect and continue the descent.
- As before, reduction of the collective requires additional input on the pedals to maintain heading and cyclic to prevent slippage.
- Upon ground contact, the fuselage will take on a ground attitude, which will move the thrust vector of the main rotor forward, resulting in a tendency of the helicopter to slide forward, requiring aft cyclic.
- When performing a vertical descent from an altitude of 15 ft or higher, ensure a sink rate less than 500 ft/min to avoid a vortex ring state (VRS).
- Approach: Refer to the Height Velocity Diagram for avoid area during the approach.
8-40. ENGINE SHUTDOWN
Cheat: DCS Autostop Engine: [LWIN+End].
- Throttle Engine idle for two minutes.
- If throttle is inadvertently rolled to the OFF position do not attempt to roll it back on.
FORCE TRIM switch ON.
- Steps 3 through 8 are to be completed after the last flight of the day if the system operation was not verified during the mission.
3. PITOT HTR Check. Place the PTOT HTR switch in the ON position. Note load meter increase then turn OFF.
4. INVTR switch OFF. Check for INST INVERTER caution light illumination. Switch to SPARE check caution light OFF.
5. AC voltmeter Check 112 to 118 volts.
6. MAIN GEN switch OFF. The DC GENERATOR caution light should illuminate and the standby generator load meter should indicate a load
7. NON-ESS BUS CHECK as required. If equipment powered by the nonessential bus is installed, accomplish the following:
- a. VM SWITCH - NON-ESS-BUS.
- b. NON-ESS-BUS switch - Manual ON. Check DC voltmeter for the same DC volts as in Step 6 above.
- c. VM SWITCH - ESS BUS.
8. MAIN GEN SWITCH ON and guard closed. The DC GENERATOR caution light should be out and the main generator load meter should indicate a load.
STARTER GEN switch Start.
THROTTLE - Off.
Engage the idle stop release, then roll the throttle fully right (decrease) until it reaches the OFF position and fuel flow to the engine is cut off.
CENTER PEDESTAL switches Off.
- a. FUEL.
- b. AVIONICS.
OVERHEAD switches Off.
- a. INVTR.
- b. PITOT HTR.
- c. LTS.
- d. MISC.
- e. CABIN HEATING.
- f. INSTRUMENT LTG.
- g. BATTERY
8-41. BEFORE LEAVING THE HELICOPTER
1. Walk-around-complete, checking for damage, fluid leaks and levels.
2. Mission equipment Secure.
3. Complete DA Forms 2408-12 and -13-1. An entry in DA Form 2408-13-1 is required is any of the following conditions were experienced:
- a. Flown in a loose grass environment.
- b. Operated in a salt4aden environment.
- c. Exposed to radioactivity.
- d. Operated in rain, ice, or snow.
- e. Operated in a volcanic ash environment.
4. Secure helicopter.